1) A means of controlling the ability to define rules of behavior in a territory. Usually stated as a territorial monopoly of violence. Generally this requires warriors. (always, actually)
2) Some form of leadership – one to many.
3) A bureaucracy to enforce decisions and to police resistance.
4) Technically, writing for the purpose of keeping records and inventories.
5) A means of collecting revenue that will pay for the administrators.
6) A set of norms that people obey under the threat of ostracization from opportunities that keeps the cost of administration down to tolerable levels.
7) A division of labor.
8) A population
Not positive. Need to think a bit. But I’m pretty sure that’s the minimum for a state. A state is different from a government. A state is a bad thing. A government can be a good thing.