by Simon Ström

Yamnaya + Funnelbeaker Neolithic is the final admixture event, and it began already in the 4th millennium BC in PIE Ukraine, if not earlier.

The two populations welded together on the material horizon from which the oldest wooden wheels are found–in the region of intersection of sedentary agriculturalists and mounted pastoralists–resulting in the Europe_LNBA genetic cluster, which rapidly expanded in all directions (the essence of Mathieson et al. 2018 and Olalde et al. 2018), displacing the Neolithic Germans, Scandinavians and Britons (who in turn had displaced the Cheddar folk, way earlier…) without significant admixture.

This genetic structure is preserved to this day in contemporary Northern Europeans.

Iberia, Italy, the Balkans and Central Asia received substantial admixture from Europe_LNBA, but only Iberians have since remained genetically spared from further Y-DNA J-mediated admixture arriving in southeastern Europe from Anatolia and the Levant (still in prehistoric times it seems, not related to the Roman Empire) and Turco-Mongol admixture in Central Asia (before and during the historical era).